Bundle Adjustment for Engineering Applications
A Program System for Close Range Photogrammetry and Aerial Triangulation Including Three-Dimensional Geodetic Network Adjustment.
BINGO is a modern and efficient program system for combined photogrammetric geodetic point determination. It can be used for aerial triangulation with large blocks as well as for the terrestrial photogrammetry and the three-dimensional adjustment of geodetic networks.
The initial aim of BINGO development was to process photogrammetric geodetic networks for engineering applications of photogrammetry. For this reason a special emphasis was put on a rigorous mathematical model, flexible application possibilities of the functions and a differentiated stochastic model. These principles have been followed during the development of standard aerial triangulation and consideration of the kinematic GPS-positioning. Despite of the wide range of possibilities the program is still easy to handle.
The program includes the following important features:
- Automatic estimation of initial orientation data and point coordinates (if no GPS/IMU)
- Intelligent error elimination
- Advanced camera calibration techniques
- Integration into photogrammetric processes for a smooth workflow
- Advanced problem recognition and problem management. E.g. in case of insufficient block geometry, lack of datum information, over-parameterization, or parallel rays.
- Processing of terrestrial photos and oblique aerial photos can be combined with standard aerial in one adjustment
- Error and problem recognition and management
- Not possible to analyze the results only numerically
- Graphical support is highly recommended